These ceramic piezo transducer elements generate a range of audible tones and frequencies when energised by 3V peak square wave. They can be driven direct from CMOS ICs with low power consumption. They are supplied unhoused and with wires attached. Provided they are mounted rigidly in the prescribed manner, outputs of up to 90dB can be achieved. In addition to a wide range of applications where audible warnings or indications are preferred to visual, other uses include toys, clocks and watches, calculators and electronic games, using the transducer in place of a speaker. Because there are no moving parts to wear out, these elements are reliable for use in professional, commercial and industrial applications. They withstand severe environmental conditions and prove durable in domestic appliances without causing r.f. interference. A range of different sizes are available.