This highly illustrated book provides an up-to-date description of the structure and function of the translation system including ribosomes, tRNAs, translation factors, antibiotics and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Research on translation is undergoing rapid changes and is receiving significant attention as evidenced by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009. The structural research by crystallography and cryo-EM forms part of an interactive framework that involves biochemistry and molecular computation. The book provides a comprehensive overview of translation in light of the structural results. It is a valuable resource for scientists in this and related fields, as well as for students taking courses with a focus on translation. There is no other book in this field currently except the previous edition of this book. The authors have for a long time worked in the field of structure and function of the translation system.